The Cedar Waxwing

Cedar Waxwing

Cedar Waxwing

A treat to find in your binocular viewfield, the Cedar Waxwing is a silky, shiny collection of brown, gray, and lemon-yellow, accented with a subdued crest, rakish black mask, and brilliant-red wax droplets on the wing feathers. In fall these birds gather by the hundreds to eat berries, filling the air with their high, thin, whistles. In summer you’re as likely to find them flitting about over rivers in pursuit of flying insects, where they show off dazzling aeronautics for a forest bird.

A treat to find in your binocular viewfield, the Cedar Waxwing is a silky, shiny collection of brown, gray, and lemon-yellow, accented with a subdued crest, rakish black mask, and brilliant-red wax droplets on the wing feathers. In fall these birds gather by the hundreds to eat berries, filling the air with their high, thin, whistles. In summer you’re as likely to find them flitting about over rivers in pursuit of flying insects, where they show off dazzling aeronautics for a forest bird.

  • The name “waxwing” comes from the waxy red secretions found on the tips of the secondaries of some birds. The exact function of these tips is not known, but they may help attract mates.
  • Cedar Waxwings with orange instead of yellow tail tips began appearing in the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada in the 1960s. The orange color is the result of a red pigment picked up from the berries of an introduced species of honeysuckle. If a waxwing eats enough of the berries while it is growing a tail feather, the tip of the feather will be orange.
  • The Cedar Waxwing is one of the few North American birds that specializes in eating fruit. It can survive on fruit alone for several months. Brown-headed Cowbirds that are raised in Cedar Waxwing nests typically don’t survive, in part because the cowbird chicks can’t develop on such a high-fruit diet.
  • Many birds that eat a lot of fruit separate out the seeds and regurgitate them, but the Cedar Waxwing lets them pass right through. Scientists have used this trait to estimate how fast waxwings can digest fruits.
  • Because they eat so much fruit, Cedar Waxwings occasionally become intoxicated or even die when they run across overripe berries that have started to ferment and produce alcohol.
  • Cedar waxwing

    Cedar waxwing

    Cedar waxwing

    Cedar waxwing

    Cedar Waxwing 2


    Cedar Waxwings feed mainly on fruits year-round. In summer, they feed on fruits such as serviceberry, strawberry, mulberry, dogwood, and raspberries. The birds’ name derives from their appetite for cedar berries in winter; they also eat mistletoe, madrone, juniper, mountain ash, honeysuckle, crabapple, hawthorn, and Russian olive fruits. In summer Cedar Waxwings supplement their fruit diet with protein-rich insects including mayflies, dragonflies, and stoneflies, often caught on the wing. They also pick items such as scale insects, spruce budworm, and leaf beetles directly from vegetation.

  • The cedar waxwing is a member of the family Bombycillidae or waxwing family of passerine birds. It is a medium-sized, mostly brown, gray, and yellow bird named for its wax-like wing tips. Wikipedia
    Scientific name: Bombycilla cedrorum
  • Photographer DOUG WORRALL
  • Information Wikipedia
  • The Cornell Lab of Ornithology

The Hendrie Valley Hamilton

Hamilton Canada offers a birder a great opportunity 


I am a firm believer “the early bird gets the worm”, in the case of Hendrie Valley-Hamilton-Canada , “The early Bird gets the Seed”The birds are waiting for you, and will land on your hand.

We had a Downey Woodpecker almost fly into my  chest he was so eager.

Enjoy the images and information

Doug Worrall

Good morning

Good morning

Located on Plains Road, this thriving wetlands ecosystem is part of the Royal Botanical Gardens parklands. Free to explore, the beautiful sunny wooded trails circulate through marshes, on boardwalks and across small bridges. You’ll see chipmunks, geese, turtles and tons of birds – bring feed if you want to see them
eat out of your hand. You’ll also see just as many photographers and birders! It takes about 60-90 minutes to leisurely explore. Paid parking is in the lot across from the RBG entrance. Once there, look for the large trailhead sign that says “Cherry Hill Gate”





An area that a friend has taken me two times now and, each time we discover different trails to explore. is the Hendrie Valley Trails of the Royal Botanical Gardens.The Trails are rich with diversity,plenty of wildlife, and a pleasant quiet ,short hike.

Bee eye reflect

Bee eye reflect



A smaller scale version of Cootes Paradise, this area which includes the 100 hectare Grindstone Creek Valley stretches to the end of Carroll’s Bay and contains the finest collection of floodplain wetlands on western Lake Ontario. Transferred to the Royal Botanical Gardens in 1941 for ecological protection, the area features slopes forested with old growth trees, a 60 hectare river mouth marsh complex, and 4 creeks. Major access points are along Plains Road and include the RBG Centre and Cherry Hill Gate.

Blue Jay

Blue Jay



This is a great spot to see birds and assorted waterfowl. You will see in this area that a large project is underway to create new banks along the water’s edge and also provide a system that works as a natural barrier against invasive carp. This has been facilitated through the re-use of over 100,000 discarded Christmas trees.And other equally intelligent moves to keep the marsh as pristine as possible.

Downey Woodpecker

Downey Woodpecker



Following the trail through the Grindstone Creek Delta, you soon arrive at a spectacular boardwalk that borders Grindstone Creek providing an excellent vantage point to watch nesting birds and observe beavers and other wildlife. This is a great place to bird watch and if you bring some seed along you can have some fun feeding the friendly birds by hand.

female Cardinal

female Cardinal

Wild Orchid

Wild Orchid

Sources:Wikipedia-Burlington Tourist,Cam Goede

Doug Worrall Photographer

Information Dragonflies-Butterflies – Hamilton

Did you know that they eat mosquitoes, have over 20,000 eyes

Wednesday July 18 2012

Dragon Flies so colourful

Wildlife This year at Harbour-front Trail, Cootes Paradise and the great lakes are few and far between.The lack of snow-pack , Spring rains has left the water level three feet less than last year, therefore less wildlife and fewer Images. Last year there was over 12 Signets born in Hamilton Harbour, this year due to the City of Hamilton Oiling Swan eggs and Canadian geese eggs there was only one signet born, all because they say the swans are causing e-Coli Bacteria and making it dangerous for people to swim in the water. I am against the oiling of eggs because the swans sit on the eggs for three Months without any offspring. People complain to the city that there is too much Canadian geese  droppings where they walk. The wildlife was here before us, please leave Mother Nature alone, Humans think they can control everything they come in contact with. Now look at the world we live in, nothing for children too be amazed and nothing to learn, It is like a Silent Spring-Shame- Shame

eight eggs and only one signet-city oils eggs Hamilton.

Readers at pics4twitts send me images quite often, Lois McNaught also walks the Harbour-front trail  Daily and has the same observations as most regulars, “where have all the wildlife gone?”

Morning Hamilton Harbour

Information on dragonflies. Did you know that they eat mosquitoes, have over 20,000 eyes, have been the subject of an old wives tale, and have even been mistaken for fairies? Find out many more interesting fact…

Dragon fly


Usually living near water, the dragonfly is one of earth’s creatures that are not only very useful, but also beautiful. They belong to thee insect group Odonata. Dragonflies come in varied colors; their bodies often blue, green, purple, and even bronze. Their wings seem to shimmer as if made of silver, especially when under the moonlight.

Dragon fly

Starting out life as small nymphs underwater, they grow to be approximately three inches long, with a wingspan averaging two to five inches in width. While this may seem large for an insect, keep in mind that as they have evolved from pre-historic times, they have gotten considerably smaller. Evidence shows that at one point in time they may have had a wingspan of over two “˜feet’! One very interesting fact of the dragonfly is his six legs. Each of the legs is covered in short bristles. Using their bristle-covered legs to form an oval shaped basket allows them to scoop insects, such as mosquitoes, right out of the air. Dragonflies not only eat mosquitoes; they also keep the fly population and other flying insects under control.

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail

The Bee and the Butterfly

Surprisingly, dragonflies will spend only a very short part of their life span as actual dragonflies. They will live as nymphs for up to four years, shedding their skin up to fifteen times, yet when they finally mature into adults, the dragonfly stage, they will survive only a few months.

Mangrove Tree Nymph

Gray catbird

Dragonflies have fascinated modern man for years. They have become the basis of both legends and old wives tales. One such old wives tale refers to a dragonfly as a “˜darning needle’. An old legend tells of people who would wake up after falling asleep outside to find their ears and eyes sewn shut by these crafty insects. If dragonflies were seen swarming over a doorway, it was said to foretell of heavy rains on the way.

Painted Lady Butterfly on Coneflower

Painted butterfly.

For as long as man and dragonflies have coexisted, people have mistaken dragonflies for fairies. “˜Fairy tales’ have been told of little people fluttering about worldwide. Upon closer inspection, the fairies are found to be groups of dragonflies.

Question Mark Butterfly

Facts about Dragonflies

How fast can dragonflies fly? In excess of sixty miles and hour!

How many eyes does a dragonfly have? They have two main eyes, but each of these eyes are made up of approximately 20,000 to 25,000 tinier eyes, allowing them to zero in on the flying insects that are their daily meals.

Post and image Doug Worrall

Doug Worrall

 Photos by Lois McNaught

What Canada Means To Me

What Canada Means To Me

July 3 2011

Ghost Train

Happy Canada Day to all, Yesterday I took many pictures around the harbour trying to capture who  and what Canada Canada is to me. I will try to explain under each image. The written word not being my forte, ergo the images:

York st. Bridge

The Mallard with her Brood reminds me how lucky I am to live in Canada. Due to Rheumatoid Arthritis and all the Diseases that follow have made my health  poor. One third of these baby ducks will not make-it, yet they sure put up a fight trying to survive, as will I

Packed house/overpass

Canada Day is celebrated on July 1st across the country. July 1st marks the anniversary of the formation of the union of the British North America provinces in a federation under the name of Canada – that’s the technical explanation, but Canada Day also means fireworks and the year’s biggest national party. The Canada Day holiday is akin to the U.S. July 4th celebration but on a more Canadian scale.

Canada Day, for those who don’t know, celebrates the passage of the British North America Act of 1867, later retconned to be known as the 1867 Constitution Act. This act amalgamated the previously freestanding colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Canada into a single federation. It also re-split Upper Canada and Lower Canada into separate provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Ironically, though the confederation talks were held in Prince Edward Island, the island wound up not liking the terms and stayed aloof from Canada for several years after the foundation of the country.

One of the main ideas of confederation, as I understand it, was fear that the United States would try to conquer the area. We forget it today, but America tried to conquer Canada during the Revolution and again during the War of 1812, and various related schemes were tossed around throughout the first half of the 19th century. The Civil War demonstrated the ability of the United States to forge a powerful central government and deploy its industrial might for military purposes, making confederation seem more urgent. Obviously, such conquest never occurred. Thank you Canada


Today, Canada Day is celebrated with fireworks, concerts, cookouts, and sports games. Canada’s capital, Ottawa, Ontario, hosts the most holiday activities. There are countless events, activities, and festivals to be found throughout the city in the city streets, parks,and museums. Fireworks are launched from Parliament Hill to conclude a day of patriotic festivities. For more information about Canada Day’s history, Thank you Canada

Live and Learn

Canada Day took decades to catch on due to the fact that many early Canadians identified themselves as British. It was not until Canada’s “golden” anniversary in 1917 (50 years), that an official celebration was recorded. The next set of Canada Day festivities did not occur until ten years later, in 1927. The government’s first recognition of the holiday occurred in 1958 with a trooping of the color on Parliament Hill. The first country-wide celebration was in 1967, Canada’s 100th anniversary. From that point on, Canada Day grew and evolved to become the widespread commercial holiday it is today. Thank you Canada

Let the show begin

Thank you Canada, Being able to get to this Bridge, enjoying the company of all around me and make it home safely is all I wanted on Canada Day. Thank you for our natural

Let the show Begin

beauty, The people and the opportunities you offer those who try.

Hamilton Harbour

" they say an echo in the woods returns your own call, and so I started speaking sweetly to everyone...and my sweet voice getting all over me, like sunlight."
                        Anne Lamott

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Doug Worrall Photography

Canadian Geese Hamilton Harbour Wildlife

Life and Birth Hamilton Harbour

Canadian geese chicks

Monday may 16 2011

Canada Goose – Branta canadensis-Hamilton


The Canada goose has a long black neck and head with a white band on its cheeks that runs under its chin like a strap. It has black feet and a light tan body with lighter brown or white under its tail. Its black bill haslamellae, or teeth, around the outside edges that are used as a cutting tool. Males and females look alike, although females are usually a little smaller than the males.

Baby Canadian goose


The Canada goose breeds and winters in most of Canada and the United States.

Mute Swan Hamilton Waterfront Park


The Canada goose can be found in a wide variety of habitats including lakes, bays, rivers and marshes. It often feeds in open fields and grasslands.

Habitat is wide


On land, the Canada goose eats a wide variety of grasses, including salt grass and Bermuda grass. It uses its bill to yank the grass out of the ground. It also eats corn, rice and wheat. In the water, the Canada goose sticks its head and upper body under the water, stretches its neck out and uses its bill to scoop up food from the mud and silt.

Canadian Geese and gosling's

Instinctual habits

Life Cycle

The female Canada goose lays her eggs between March and June. She will lay between four to ten whitish eggs in a nest made of grass, reeds and moss and lined with down. The nests are usually on the ground near water. The female hatches the eggs and turns them over often to evenly heat them.The male will guard the female and the nest and will call out a warning if danger approaches. It takes about a month for the eggs to hatch. The chicks break out of the shell with an egg tooth on the top of their bills. It may take them one to two days to completely break out of the shell. The chicks will fly when they are between 40 and 70 days old. Most Canada geese will mate for life.

Family dynamics


Canada geese migrate in large V-shaped formations. They honk loudly while they are flying. They migrate at a slow pace. Male Canada geese can be very aggressive they will often attack predators with their wings and bill.

Sources :Natureworks, Wikipedia

Doug Worrall Photographer

Ecology Meanders In Nature Hamilton

Ecology Meanders In Nature Hamilton

Wednesday 20 April 2011

Canadian Geese

“Oh the river that meanders suggests a valley with low slope: As it twists and turns and cuts a course…an aquatic king of grope; For the river, twisty, twisty river, looks a bit like some blue rope.” Kenton M. Steward

River and Stream Bends Work

Architectural meander

The meander is one of several interesting shapes that form exquisite patterns found repeatedly in nature ! Meander is a bend in a sinuous (channel type) watercourse. All streams (rivers, creeks) are sinuous at some time in their geological history over some part of their length. Over time, rivers of water form into a shape called a meander as they wear away at the soil along the edges which are viewable from the ground level or from an airplane window. A river can have concave or convex banks. A meander is meander geometry or planform geometry with irregular waveforms or a sincuous waves (one thick line on the stream or river). The direction of the river usually meanders down a low valley on its axis. The curvature of the meandering stream varies from the apex (maximum point) to zero at a crossing point (straight line) which can be called inflection basically due to the curvature changing direction in that vicinity. In ancient Greek, the term was Maiandros or Maeander was meant for the Meander River which is east of ancient Greece in the town of Miletus which is today Milet, Turkey. Rivers rarely maintain a straight route as they travel to large rivers, lakes or oceans. Therefore, they take a series of bends and smooth loops that snake across the landscape.

Hamilton Sediments


Sand Sediment

This snaking pattern goes back and forth across a low valley (like Dundas Valley) because a stream, creek or river that may assume a meandering course, alternatively eroding sediments from the outside (shoreline) of a bend and deposit them on the inside. The meander is formed when moving water in a river, creek or stream erodes the outer banks and widens in the low valley. It is the bending of the river that is known as a meander. These bends reflect the way in which a river minimizes resistance to flow, therefore, spreading as evenly as possible along the river course the energy of the water. This is how it works: if you try to swim a meandering river one observation would be the velocity of the moving water was not the same everywhere you swam. That is because the velocity is at the lowest point along the bed and walls of the river ultimately due to the water as it encounters the most friction and therefore the flow of the water is reduced. In a straight channel segment of the river. creek or stream the water moves faster in mid-channel especially near the surface. But , as the water moves around the bend (meanders) the high velocity of the water swings to the outside of the channel. It is when water rushes past the outer part of the bend (meander), the sediment is continuously eroded from the riverbed and is swept downstream. On the innerside of each bend it is a slower flow of water and coarse sediment that accumulates and forms distinctive point bars. This creates a meandering pattern along the course of the river with shallow water and point bars on the inside bends and steep banks on the outside. The material lining of the banks is not uniform along the river system therefore another landform – an oxbow lake, can develop. It is the resistant sediment that slows downstream and other meanders on the same river that mitigate through softer sediment upstream as they intersect the slower-moving meander and cut off the channel between the two forming an independent loop that will become a lake (oxbow).

Cootes paradise

Meandering paths

Lake Ontario has many example of meanders. For example, Hamilton Harbour, a harbour or river bar is a sediment deposit formed at the harbour entrance or river mouth by the deposition of sediment or the action of waves on the sea floor. In Lake Ontario, the separation is the barrier beach (Burlington Bay in the east of Hamilton). The meanders are from a drowned river in glacier times of the lake. But, in the west end of Hamilton the river mouth spreads into a River Mouth Marsh (Cootes Paradise). This is fed by the Spencer Creek Watershed that include the following Creeks : Fletch, Flamborough, Logie’s, Westover, West Spencer, Ancaster, Borer’s Chedoke, Spring, Tiffny, Sulphur, Sydenham and Westdale. M.R. Pozze, J.J. Bryers and W.A. Morris from McMaster University School of Geography and Geology published a paper entitled “Lake-based magnets mapping of contaminated sediment distributing it on Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada.” These researchers investigated three concepts, namely: (1) Contaminated Sediment, (2) Environmental magnetism, and (3) Magnetic susceptibility. Other Lake Ontario meanders include: Hyland Creek River near Scarborough that flows into Lake Ontario; the Humber River that flows south into Lake Ontario; and, Keating Channel that empties into Toronto Harbourfront and Lake Ontario. Hamilton’s Cycling Paths are also noted for their meandering paths.

Meandering streams

Hamilton Meandering

Other Meanderings

Greek and Roman art, especially Greek vases from the Geometric Period have ocean-like patterns of waves. In art and architecture repeated motifs are shaped from a continuous line into a decorative boarder called meanderings. In protecting our Canadian environment an ocean going yacht and coastal cruiser called Meander is a historical ship. That is, because in 1977 the ship Meander acted as Greenpeace IX stopping supertankers from coming into British Columbia waters at Vancouver. In Greenpeace IX, the ship Meander was a blockade to nuclear submarines attempting to enter Hood Canal. It also served in FY11 in WW11. In the 1950s and 1960s it was a coastal cruiser on the west coast of Vancouver Island. In 2,005 at the Victoria Classic Boat Show it won “Best Boat Of The Show” award. The original owner George Kidd, wanted a ship that would go anywhere in the world.


Sources: Canadian Geographic Magazine; McMaster University School of Geography and Geology; Royal Vancouver Yacht Club;

By Jacqueline

Doug Worrall Photography

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Genetic Diversity of Mute Swans and Egg Clutch Size

Genetic Diversity of Mute Swans and Egg Clutch Size

Tuesday March 1st 2011



Researcher Anne Charmontier, from England, has devoted most of her professional career investigating Genetic Diversity of Mute Swans as a wild and avian bird population. Along with other researchers Charmontier published in American Naturalist a 25-year study regarding Egg Clutch Size entitled “Mute Swan Population Helps Explain Evolutionary Question.” In this study the scientific question was – Why does a population’s average clutch size differ from the most productive clutch size ? Charmontier and the other researchers hypothesis was supported in this study results that (a) recent relaxation on food constraints, and, (b) an increase of protection from predators, both may have helped the Mute Swans to Evolve towards a Larger Clutch Size. In her work, Charmontier has studied and published data on (1) Evolutionary response to egg clutch size, (2) Individual variation in rates of Senescence: Natal Origin Effects in wild bird populations, (3) Seasonal Changes in Male/Female Mute Swans, (4) Climate Changes in wild bird population; (5) Genetic Models of Mate Choice in the wild; (6) Variations in Breeding Behaviour; and, her current work in 2,011 is entitled (7) “Age-Dependent Genetic Variations in the Life-History Traits of Mute Swans.” Other researchers measured the eggs and hatching mass in birds and reptiles. They found in birds the most important factor affecting hatching mass (HM) was the initial egg mass (IEM) at laying the egg.

Busking out of hand

They also found a physiological link between (IEM) and (HM) which contrast the observed relationship between egg mass and the incubation period. The results of this study, for birds and reptiles, showed “significant implications for the interrelationships between (IEM) and Embryonic Growth (of the Cygnet within the egg in swans).” Another study of 1,525 bird species and 201 reptile species investigated initial egg mass (IEM) and incubation period (IP). Their statistical ANOVA tables demonstrated that for bird eggs incubation period is NOT determined in large part by egg mass. And this study’s results allowed for new scientific questions to be proved by researchers. Two of these questions include (1) Ecological and Physiological Factors affecting the Length of Incubation Period, and, (2) The Rates of Embryonic Growth for different taxa (animal kingdoms) and habitats. In light of these studies considering Embryonic Growth within the Mute Swan’s egg, how do you feel about some people spraying the eggs with corn oil so they won’t grow and the pen Mute Swan would sit on those eggs forever with no cygnets hatching ?

Egg thickness

Signets 1 day old

Heterozygosis is dissimilar pairs of Genes or in a Cell the loss of normal function of one allele (different forms) of a Gene. Genetic variations from Genes are important in zoology and nature in general ! In Mute Swans and other animals body proportions can change depending where particular master Hox Genes are active. The same Hox Gene – Hox C6 – switches on at different points along the body. The Hox Gene marks the beginning of the Thorax, therefore, different species end up with necks of varying lengths…a long neck in the goose…and a much longer neck in Mute Swans, according to National Geographic’s “Fins to Wings.” In the Journal of Zoology March 2,011 issue includes a study on “Genetic Diversity in Birds associated with (1) Body Mass (BM), and (2) Habitat Type (HT) [aquatic or terrestrial] in 76 Avian Bird Species.” These variables were chosen because (BM) and (HT) are predictors of Genetic Variation which is very similar in birds. The results of this study show Terrestrial birds have a greater Genetic Diversity than Aquatic species. And, these results were interpreted from published data of other vertebrates that suggest the “Patterns of Genetic Diversity in Birds” depends on two relationships, namely (1) Bird Evolutionary effective POPULATION SIZE , determined in part by Ecological and Environmental features, and, (2) on the Rate of Molecular Evolution. J. L. Quinn stated in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology that “Evolutionary Biologists increasingly use pedigree-based quantitative Genetic Methods to address questions about the Evolutionary Dynamics of Traits in wild bird populations: data depth (number of years) and completeness (number of observations). The results of J.L. Quinn’s study showed by using long-term studies of the Great Tit and Mute Swan Estimated Breeding Values in the Great Tit were NOT influenced by data depth; but, Breeding Values WERE INFLUENCED by data depth (number of years) in the Mute Swans. This influence in Breeding Values by Data Depth was probably due to the differences in pedigree structure between the Mute Swan and Great Tit. At Chicago’s Field Museum of Natural History, Sushma Reddy published in Science “Genetic Sequence of 169 Birds.” In the study results Reddy indicated “Flamingoes and some other aquatic birds did not evolve from water birds, instead, they adapted to life on the water.” Along the same line of thinking, Evolution Diary states “New bird family tree reveals same odd ducks.” The Mute Swan (Cygrus olor) is a species of swan, and thus a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. E. Marjorie Northcote, Cambridge University, England study indicated “Limb bones of Mute Swans from Neolithic [the last part of the Stone Age – not a time frame, but state of the culture] to the Bronze Age in Cambridgeshire PEAT were larger than that of a recent sample when compared biometrically.” That means, a study of biological phenomena, such as, measuring physical characteristics, such as, Limb Bones of Mute Swans.

Mute Swans 6,000 years old are found in post-glacial PEAT beds at East Anglia in England. Despite the Eurasian origin of Mute Swans, its closest relatives are the Black Swan of Australia and the Black-Necked Swan of South America. The Mute Swan is constantly criticized for stealing Trumpeter Swan, native to Canada, nesting sites. Conversely, in a List Of Animals Displaying Homosexual Behaviour it included Black Swans. This listing stated: “The Black Swan (Cygnus Atratus) is a large waterbird that breeds mainly in the southeast and southwest regions of Australia. An estimated 1/4 of all Black Swan pairings are homosexual and they STEAL NESTS, or form temporary threesomes with females to obtain eggs, driving away the female after she lays the egg.” The Stealing of Nests seems to be a family trait in both Mute and Black Swans. . For many years Black Swans have been on the River Thames in Stratford, Ontario and there were a pair at White Chapel Pond in Hamilton, Ontario. The International Union For Conservation Of Nature (IUCN) founded in 1963, Red |List or Threatened Species is the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. The (IUCN) is also the world’s main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. Joseph Travis, Presidential Address of the American Society of Naturalists stated: “Ecology and Evolutionary Biology are fundamental processes that unfold from a variety of histories. The task of our science is to match the question to organisms, or systems. For many scientist, the organism leads to the question when we observe (participant observation) some of nature’s striking phenomena.”

Signets 3 days old

Sources: Journal of Zoology, National Geographic, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Science, American Naturalist, Evolution Diary, American Society of Naturalists

By Jacqueline


Doug Worrall Photography